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Targeted immune cells shrink tumors in mice

September 14, 2015

In the new study, the research team genetically engineered human T cells to target human mesothelin. To produce them, a modified virus was used as a delivery vehicle, or vector, to transfer synthetic genes to T cells. These genes directed the production of hybrid, or chimeric, proteins that can recognize and bind to mesothelin and consequently stimulate the proliferation and cell-killing activity of the T cells. In laboratory studies, the team found that the engineered T cells proliferated and secreted multiple cytokines when exposed to mesothelin. Cytokines are proteins that help control immune functions. The cells also expressed proteins that made them resistant to the toxic effects of tumors and their surrounding tissues.

To study the effects of the engineered T cells on tumor tissue, the researchers implanted human mesothelioma cells underneath the skin of mice. About six weeks later, when tumors had formed and progressed to an advanced stage, the engineered T cells were administered to the mice. Direct injection of the T cells into tumors or into veins of the mice resulted in disappearance or shrinkage of the tumor.

"Based on the size of the tumors and the number of cells administered, we estimate that one mesothelin-targeted T cell was able to kill about 40 tumor cells," said study leader Carl H. June, M.D., Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and director of Translational Research at Penn's Abramson Cancer Center. "This finding indicates that small doses of these cells may have potential in treating patients with large tumors. Clinical trials are being developed to investigate this approach in patients with mesothelioma and ovarian cancer."

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